Control and Measuring Instruments

On the facilities, according to the model of the weakest points, the following sensors of the first level of the automated condition monitoring system are installed:

Jointmeters

Are used to measure displacement of concrete constructional blocks, and to control dynamics of cracks deformation in brickwork or stonework, concrete constructions or rock.

 

Subject to controlled parameters requirements, jointmeters can be fixed in uniaxial, biaxial and triaxial types with the control range from 2 to 250 mm.

Jointmeter

Jointmeter


Sensors for Pressure Piezometers and Measuring of Hydrostatical and Pore Pressure

Are used to measure water pressure on the line of concrete construction and its base, and also to measure hydrostatical and pore pressure in constructions and bases of hydraulic structures. These sensors are installed while facilities are under construction.

Pressure piezometers

Devices to Control Stress and Strain State of Constructions

Are used to measure:

Strain State of Constructions 2
  • rebair strain and compression forces (measuring are started directly after installation and conducted during construction works and following exploitation until strain and deformation are fully stabilized or devices service life (e.i. 25 years) is over; are installed at the stage of facilities construction);
 Strain State of Constructions
  • linear deformation in supporting constructions (are installed at the stage of facilities construction, as well as during exploitation. Embedment strain gages are fixed by welding to metal structures or metal parts or are fixed by anchoring to the existing structures of constructions);
 Strain State of Constructions 3
  • earth pressure (control contact pressure in the soil on the line of concrete constructions and tension in soil bodies; are installed while facility is under construction).
 Strain State of Constructions 4

Stressmeters

Are used to measure pressure in:

  • foundations of dams, bridges and other heavy solid concrete structures;
  • stone walls of tunnels and mines; 
  • concrete piers and pillars.
Stressmeter

Extensometers

Are used to measure displacement of earth-fill dams, changes of basic sizes and to control flashes in soft soil. They are differ according to the type of usage and type of construction:

  • for embankments (inspection of the transverse tension control) and fixed (control of flashes or embankments growth);
  • for boreholes (multicomponents) - to control the space around engineering facility;
  • for flashes control - long-term supervision over engineering construction.
Extensometer

Extensometer consists of three main parts: anchor, rod and displacement sensor (meter). A rod connects an indicator to an anchor, which is mechanically-expanding construction, based on wedge, cone or spring, attached to the borehole wall.

 Extensometer 2

Normal and Inverted Pendulums

Are used to measure:

  • displacement of the parts of concrete and metal constructions, situated far apart relative to each other;
  • displacement relative to vertical direction of drilling of the holes and wells at the stage of their creation;
  • rock beds movement;
  • inclination of high-altitude towers and support constructions, as well as level of their movements.
Inverted pendulum is a wire with one end, attached to the bottom-hole in dam foundation, and the other - dipped into the tank with a liquid, holding the wire in vertical tensioned position. Pendulums' measurements are defined as wire position relative to height construction by means of the optical (mechanical) instrumentation.
Penduleum

Sensors for Non-pressure Piezometers

Are used to measure drainage water pressure in the earth dam borehole.

Sensor for non-pressure piezometers

Inclinometers (Inclination sensor)

Are used to measure:

  • inclination of buildings, dams, bridges, mines sites or their construction parts;
  • tunnels, bridges, mines deformation;
  • deflection and deformation of support constructions, walls and beams;
  • side displacement of mountain massifs and soil in sliding areas;
  • displacement of flats in earthfill dams;
  • flashes of foundations and embankments (horizontal sensors).

Attached to the construction sensor with bracket is closed by the protective cover. Inclinometer makes measurements in two planes, inclination in diagonal views is calculated on the basis of these data. Sensor is selected on the basis of the requirements to measured inclination and measurement accuracy.

Inclinometer

Sensors of Meteorological Station

Are used to measure environmental parameters:                  

 

Sensor of Meteorological Station
  • rain capacity;
  • air temperature and humidity;
  • atmospheric pressure;
  • wind power and direction.
Sensor of Meteorological Station 2